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Information @ a Glance

General

  • A chlorophenol is any organochloride of phenol that contains one or more covalently bonded chlorine atoms.
  • Chlorophenols are typically crystalline, with solubility in ethers, alcohol, petroleum solvents, and slight to no solubility in water.
  • Many chlorophenols have a characteristic phenolic odor.

Process

  • Chlorophenols are produced by electrophilic halogenation of phenol with chlorine. The temporal decomposition behavior of monochlorophenols in aqueous solutions by sonolysis was markedly influenced by the species distribution and the volatility of specific monochlorophenol.
  • The optimum conditions for m-chlorophenol degradation by Pseudomonas putida CP1, some physicochemical conditions like pH, temperature and carbon nitrogen ratio for the growth and degradation of most persistent monochlorophenol, m-chlorophenol by the organism was optimised.

Application

  • The monochlorophenols are used as synthetic intermediates for dyes and chlorinated phenols.
  • Chlorophenols are used in leather tanning and finishing.
  • m-Chlorophenol is reported to be formed during chlorination of sewage and p-chlorophenol is used as a denaturant for alcohol, as an antiseptic, and as a selective solvent for refining mineral.
  • Chlorophenols are used in the manufacturing of pesticides and herbicides and are added to many formulations to prevent microbial growth.

Technology

  • The effects of UV irradiation, both in the presence and absence of hydrogen peroxide, as well as of gamma irradiation on 2- and 4-chlorophenol in a solid water ice matrix have been studied and compared to those effects known to occur in aqueous solutions.
  • Sulfate consumption by the cultures corresponded to the stoichiometric values expected for complete oxidation of the chlorophenol to CO2.
  • Formation of sulfide from sulfate was confirmed with a radiotracer technique.
  • Elecochemical technique used for the remediation of chlorophenols and nitroaromatics.

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