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- Nitric acid (HNO3),
also known as aqua fortis and spirit of nitre, is a highly corrosive and
toxic strong acid that can cause severe burns.
- Colorless when pure,
older samples tend to acquire a yellow cast due to the accumulation of
oxides of nitrogen. If the solution contains more than 86% nitric acid,
it is referred to as fuming nitric acid.
- Fuming nitric acid is
characterized as white fuming nitric acid and red fuming nitric acid,
depending on the amount of nitrogen dioxide present.
- Nitric acid is made by
mixing nitrogen dioxide (NO2) with water in the presence of oxygen or
air to oxidize the nitrous acid also produced by the reaction.
- Commercial grade nitric
acid solutions are usually between 52% and 68% nitric acid. Commercial
production of nitric acid is via the Ostwald process, named after
- The acid can also be
synthesized by oxidizing ammonia, but the product is diluted by the
water also formed as part of the reaction.
- A solution of nitric
acid and alcohol, Nital, is used for etching of metals to reveal the
- Nitric acid is also
used in explosives, and is one of the key components of Nitroglycerin
and RDX .
- In elemental analysis
by ICP-MS, ICP-AES, GFAA, and Flame AA, dilute nitric acid (0.5 to 5.0
%) is used as a matrix compound for determining metal traces in
- In a low concentration,
nitric acid is often used to artificially age pine and maple. The color
produced is a grey-gold very much like very old wax or oil finished
- Merchant Research &
Consulting Ltd (UK) consulting agency says that the current global
market for adipic acid is pretty well supplied, and the demand for
industrial chemicals has been steadily growing.
- The global demand for
industrial chemicals based on nitric acid grows by an average of 7% per
- In India, the market
for concentrated nitric acid has been developing at a quick pace.
- U.S. emissions of N2O
from adipic and nitric acid production averaged around 37 million metric
tons of carbon dioxide equivalent per year.
- Nitric acid is a
powerful oxidizing agent, and the reactions of nitric acid with
compounds such as cyanides, carbides, and metallic powders can be
explosive. Reactions of nitric acid with many organic compounds, such as
turpentine, are violent and hypergolic .
- Concentrated nitric
acid dyes human skin yellow due to a reaction with the keratin. These
yellow stains turn orange when neutralized.
- The acid-catalyzed
hydrolysis of acetohydroxamic acid in a nitric acid solution has been
- The ADEQ sampled
ambient air for concentrated hydrochloric and nitric acids downwind of
the release only after the massive release of nitric acid had
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