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Information @ a Glance

General

  • Nitro compounds are organic compounds that contain one or more nitro functional groups (-NO2).
  • The nitro compounds are colourless, somewhat pleasant smelling liquids.
  • Nitro compounds distil without decomposition and possess boiling points much higher than those of the isomeric nitrous esters.
  • Most of the poly-nitro compounds are not volatile, but undergo decomposition on heating .

Synthesis

  • A wide range of aromatic nitro compounds with tellurium powder in aqueous methanolic ammonium chloride and resulted in selective reduction of the nitro groups.
  • Synthesis of primary and secondary nitro compounds which involves treating alkyl halides with sodium nitrite in dimethylformamide yields 5542% of pure nitro compounds are obtained.
  • Very frequent method for preparation of aliphatic nitro compounds is oxidation of primary amines with potassium permanganate.

Application

  • The role of reactive nitrogen oxide species (RNOS) in human disease states characterized by inflammation, such as coronary atherosclerosis, has largely been obtained from the quantification of 3-nitrotyrosine in diseased tissues.
  • Nitro-compounds such as glycerol trinitrate (nitroglycerin), isosorbide dinitrate, sodium nitroprusside, amyl nitrite and other agents produce vasodilation by actions of cyclic guanine monophosphate (cyclic GMP) synthesized through stimulations of cytosolic guanylate cyclase.
  • Nitrate simultaneously induced NADH- and NADPH-nitrate reductase activities in rice seedlings.
  • Rapid and selective reduction of nitro compounds is of importance for the preparation of amino derivatives.

Technology

  • The adsorption of several aromatic nitro compounds and the ion-exchange of heavy metal ions on electro-oxidized carbon fibres have been investigated using cyclic voltammetric and polarographic techniques.
  • Nitro groups on aromatic self-assembled monolayers(SAM)s on silver are selectively converted to amino groups under irradiation technique with visible light.
  • Nitric oxide(NO) has been detected as the product of thermal decomposition of nitro-organics by IR spectroscopy, microwave spectroscopy, and fluorescence techniques.

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