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  • Oxygen is the element with atomic number 8 and represented by the symbol O.
  • It is a member of the chalcogen group on the periodic table, and is a highly reactive nonmetallic period 2 element that readily forms compounds (notably oxides) with almost all other elements.
  • Oxygen is the most abundant chemical element, by mass, in our biosphere, air, sea and land. Oxygen is the third most abundant chemical element in the universe, after hydrogen and helium.
  • In nature, free oxygen is produced by the light-driven splitting of water during oxygenic photosynthesis


  • Most commercial oxygen is produced using a variation of the cryogenic distillation process originally developed in 1895.
  • This process produces oxygen that is 99+% pure. More recently, the more energy-efficient vacuum swing adsorption process has been used for a limited number of applications that do not require oxygen with more than 90-93% purity.
  • The steps used to produce commercial-grade oxygen from air using the cryogenic distillation process.
  • The process utilizes an extremely cold cryogenic section to separate the air, all impurities that might solidify—such as water vapor, carbon dioxide, and certain heavy hydrocarbons—must first be removed to prevent them from freezing and plugging the cryogenic piping.


  • The Pennsylvania State University (Penn State) installed the new test unit to measure high-temperature
    behavior of ITM Oxygen materials under oxygen permeation conditions.
  • Air Products demonstrated the ITM Oxygen flux target required for Task 4.3.1
    Complete Evaluation of a Subscale Module of Subscale AP2K Membranes.
  • Air Products continued to perform oxygen flux tests of AP2K, laboratory-scale, supported, thin-film
    membranes, prepared by Ceramatec using baseline ceramic processing procedures.
  • Eltron Research, Inc. commenced work for its designed experiment study of ITM Oxygen material
    compositions, with the goal of identifying optimized compositions for the membrane and catalyst.

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