- Petroleum (Latin
Petroleum derived from Greek πετρα - rock + ολιον - oil) or crude oil is
a naturally occurring liquid found in formations in the Earth consisting
of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons (mostly alkanes) of various
lengths. Petroleum is used mostly, by volume, for producing fuel oil and
gasoline (petrol), both important "primary energy" sources
- Fossil fuels have
made large-scale industrial development possible and have largely
supplanted water-driven mills, as well as the combustion of wood or peat
for heat. Fossil fuel" is a term for buried combustible geologic
deposits of organic materials, formed from decayed plants and animals
that have been converted to crude oil, coal, natural gas, or heavy oils
by exposure to heat and pressure in the earth's crust over hundreds of
millions of years
- Refining is the
processing of one complex mixture of hydrocarbons into a number of
other complex mixtures of hydrocarbons. The safe and orderly
processing of crude oil into flammable gases and liquids at high
temperatures and pressures using vessels, equipment, and piping
subjected to stress and corrosion requires considerable knowledge,
control, and expertise.
refining has evolved continuously in response to changing consumer
demand for better and different products. Petroleum refineries use
relatively large volumes of water, especially for cooling systems.
Surface water runoff and sanitary wastewaters are also generated.
The quantity of wastewaters generated and their characteristics
depend on the process configuration.
technologies had a broad range of applications including industrial
materials analysis, petroleum refining and distribution, medicine,
and building controls. One project, Capillary Optics for X-Ray
Focusing and Collimating, with application in the petroleum,
materials analysis, and semiconductor sectors, has realized economic
benefits to date, with more significant benefits yet to come.
separations technologies and distillation equipment design were
evaluated for research opportunities. The most energy-intensive
process flow sheets in the chemical and petroleum industries were
reviewed for opportunities to implement these improved separation
technologies. Energy used to drive separation processes accounts for
approximately sixty percent of the total energy used by the chemical
and petroleum industries.
- Crude refining
capacity estimated at 51.85 million tonne/ annum is spread over 12
refineries. Petroleum refining industry being entirely in the public
sector, is close knit, with a high level of inter-refinery
collaboration and information sharing through forum, such as the Oil
Co-ordination Committee, the Centre for High Technology,
inter-refinery meetings and others.
- Even if 85%
to 90% of the product requirement is to be met through Indian
refineries significant capacity augmentation is indicated.
India imports nearly
two thirds of its petroleum needs.Exports in April rose 23.1 percent
to 10.58 billion dollars, but the gain was offset by imports of
17.64 billion dollars, a jump of nearly 41 percent, the statement
said.Trade Minister Kamal Nath said in April that the government had
set a goal of exports worth 160 billion dollars for the year started
petroleum retail company, is planning to add six outlets in Sri
Lanka through its subsidiary, Lanka IOC. Lanka IOC is making phased
investments of around Rs450 crore in the island nation. CPC, the
other important player in the petroleum sector, has 1,070 retail
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