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Information @ a Glance

  • Petroleum (Latin Petroleum derived from Greek πετρα - rock + ολιον - oil) or crude oil is a naturally occurring liquid found in formations in the Earth consisting of a complex mixture of hydrocarbons (mostly alkanes) of various lengths. Petroleum is used mostly, by volume, for producing fuel oil and gasoline (petrol), both important "primary energy" sources
  • Fossil fuels have made large-scale industrial development possible and have largely supplanted water-driven mills, as well as the combustion of wood or peat for heat. Fossil fuel" is a term for buried combustible geologic deposits of organic materials, formed from decayed plants and animals that have been converted to crude oil, coal, natural gas, or heavy oils by exposure to heat and pressure in the earth's crust over hundreds of millions of years

Refining Process

  • Refining is the processing of one complex mixture of hydrocarbons into a number of other complex mixtures of hydrocarbons. The safe and orderly processing of crude oil into flammable gases and liquids at high temperatures and pressures using vessels, equipment, and piping subjected to stress and corrosion requires considerable knowledge, control, and expertise.
  • Petroleum refining has evolved continuously in response to changing consumer demand for better and different products. Petroleum refineries use relatively large volumes of water, especially for cooling systems. Surface water runoff and sanitary wastewaters are also generated. The quantity of wastewaters generated and their characteristics depend on the process configuration.

Application & Technology

  • Photonics technologies had a broad range of applications including industrial materials analysis, petroleum refining and distribution, medicine, and building controls. One project, Capillary Optics for X-Ray Focusing and Collimating, with application in the petroleum, materials analysis, and semiconductor sectors, has realized economic benefits to date, with more significant benefits yet to come.
  • Hybrid separations technologies and distillation equipment design were evaluated for research opportunities. The most energy-intensive process flow sheets in the chemical and petroleum industries were reviewed for opportunities to implement these improved separation technologies. Energy used to drive separation processes accounts for approximately sixty percent of the total energy used by the chemical and petroleum industries.


  • Crude refining capacity estimated at 51.85 million tonne/ annum is spread over 12 refineries. Petroleum refining industry being entirely in the public sector, is close knit, with a high level of inter-refinery collaboration and information sharing through forum, such as the Oil Co-ordination Committee, the Centre for High Technology, inter-refinery meetings and others.
  • Even if 85% to 90% of the product requirement is to be met through Indian refineries significant capacity augmentation is indicated. India imports nearly two thirds of its petroleum needs.Exports in April rose 23.1 percent to 10.58 billion dollars, but the gain was offset by imports of 17.64 billion dollars, a jump of nearly 41 percent, the statement said.Trade Minister Kamal Nath said in April that the government had set a goal of exports worth 160 billion dollars for the year started April.
  • India’s leading petroleum retail company, is planning to add six outlets in Sri Lanka through its subsidiary, Lanka IOC. Lanka IOC is making phased investments of around Rs450 crore in the island nation. CPC, the other important player in the petroleum sector, has 1,070 retail outlets.

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