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Information @ a Glance

  • A phosphate, in inorganic chemistry, is a salt of phosphoric acid. In organic chemistry, a phosphate, or organophosphate, is an ester of phosphoric acid. Phosphates are important in biochemistry and biogeochemistry.
  • The phosphate ion is a polyatomic ion with the empirical formula PO43− and a molar mass of 94.973 g/mol; it consists of one central phosphorus atom surrounded by four identical oxygen atoms in a tetrahedral arrangement.

Production Process

  • Tetrasodium pyrophosphate can be prepared by molecular dehydration of dibasic sodium phosphate at 500C. Another way to prepare Tetrasodium pyrophosphate  involves the calcination of sodium tripolyphosphate and a sodium salt
  • Sodium phosphates are generally prepared by the partial or total neutralization of phosphoric acid using sodium carbonate or sodium hydroxide (Ashford, 1994).
  • Yeasts have been known to humans for thousands of years as they have been used in fermentation processes like the production of alcoholic beverages and bread leavening.

Applications & Technology

  • Phosphates play an important role in chemical leavening systems by reacting with baking soda to spur leavening in a variety of products, including cookies, tortillas and pizza.
  • Sodium acid pyrophosphates are the most common phosphates used in chemical leaveners.
  • Calcium phosphate manufactured samples, typically produced with hydroxyapatite, are used as spacers or fillers in orthopedic reconstruction and as fillers in maxillofacial applications.
  • Dicalcium phosphate (DCP) production process was named "low-temperature endothermic". Further technological modernization results in change calcium hydroxide-dolomite mixture
    used as raw material with calcium carbonate and elimination of the dolomite as raw material.


  • Phosphate fertiliser consumption in the EU also shows a downward trend. Since the peaks of consumption during the1970s and 1980s, a reduction of 45% was recorded, and further decrease is expected for the future. The average share of fertilisers in total farming costs is generally around 10% or less.
  • The higher level of production of processed phosphates in major consuming countries such as China, India, and, to some extent, Brazil continues to be supplemented with imports from key exporters. In the next five years, new projects for the manufacturing of processed phosphates are expected to come on stream in Algeria, Brazil, China and India.

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