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Information @ a Glance

General

  • The pineapple (Ananas comosus) is a tropical plant and fruit.
  • The word "pineapple", first recorded in 1398, was originally used to describe the reproductive organs of conifer trees (now termed pine cones).
  • In Spanish pineapples are called ananá ("ananás", in Spain) or piña (see the piña colada drink).
  • The pineapple is the leading edible member of the family Bromeliaceae which embraces about 2,000 species.
  • Bromelain is a complex mixture of substances that can be extracted from the stem and core fruit of the pineapple.

Growth

  • A large, sweet pineapple grown especially in Brazil is called abacaxi.
  • Pineapple is mostly grown at low elevations in areas with a temperature range of 15 to 30ºC.
  • Pineapple can be grown in a wide range of soils, but does not tolerate waterlogging. It can be grown as a pure crop on plantation scale or as an intercrop in coconut gardens.
  • Pineapple can be cut and peeled in a variety of ways.

Cultivation

  • Pineapples are readily reproduced by vegetative propagation, using crowns, slips, or suckers.
  • Pineapples should be planted where the temperature remains warmest, such as the south side of a home, or in a sunny portion of the garden or home.

  • The pineapple spread from its original area through cultivation.

  • Pineapple is planted in double hedge system for convenient intercultural operations.

Uses

  • Pineapple oil or essence is used as flavoring for confectionery.

  • In addition to its nourishing uses, the pineapple has long served medicinal purposes in folk medicine.

  • The non-food use of the pineapple, which is associated only in the Philippines, is the fabric woven from the fibers extracted from its leaves.

  • Pineapple juice has been employed for cleaning machete and knife blades and, with sand, for scrubbing boat decks.

Market

  • South Africa produces 2.7 million cartons of canned pineapple yearly and exports 2.4 million.
  • The ten leading exporters of fresh pineapples were (in descending order): Taiwan (39,621 tons), Puerto Rico, Hawaii, Ivory Coast, Brazil, Guinea, Mexico, South Africa, Philippines and Martinique (5,000 tons). The ten leading exporters of processed pineapples were (in descending order): Hawaii, Philippines, Taiwan, South Africa, Malaysia (Singapore), Ivory Coast, Australia, Ryukyu, Mexico, Thailand (10,500,000 tons).
  • Hawaii produces 500,000 tons of pineapples each year.
  • More than a million tonnes of fresh pineapple is traded.

  • According to FAO, more than 80 countries produce nearly 14 million tonnes of pineapple.

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