- Polyelectrolytes are
polymers whose repeating units bear an electrolyte group. These groups
will dissociate in aqueous solutions (water), making the polymers
charged. Polyelectrolyte properties are thus similar to both
electrolytes (salts) and polymers (high molecular weight compounds), and
are sometimes called polysalts.
- Like salts, their
solutions are electrically conductive. Like polymers, their solutions
are often viscous. Many biological molecules are polyelectrolytes. For
instance, polypeptides (thus all proteins) and DNA are polyelectrolytes.
Both natural and synthetic polyelectrolytes are used in a variety of
industries. Orflock polyelectrolyte coagulants are available in various
compositions, degree of polymerization, viscosity, etc.
- Multilayer thin
films prepared from weak polyelectrolytes can exhibit a rich suite
of anomalous physicochemical properties. One of the major factors
that influence the properties of such films is the acid/base
chemistry of the weak functional groups of the polyelectrolytes. The
success of the multilayer growth is achieved only when the addition
of a new layer results in charge over-compensation on the film
- Strongly charged
polyacrylate hydrogels, however, display a qualitatively different
scattering response. Under an acidic condition, a protein may become
a cationic polyelectrolyte so that the formation of ionic bonds
between gelatin and - carrageenan would be possible because -carrageenan
is an anionic polyelectrolyte.
- AEROGELS of clays
can be prepared by freeze-drying of clay water gels. The mechanical
strength of the aerogels is improved by the addition of
water-soluble polyelectrolytes to the hydrogels. Because of the
toughness of the clay-polyelectrolyte aerogels, they can be rolled
out to thin sheets which may be applied as chromatographic papers.
- DNA is a highly
negatively charged polyelectrolyte both in double-stranded
(“native”) and in single-stranded (“denatured”) forms and displays
considerable sensitivity to ionic surroundings during various
structural transitions and in interactions with charged species.
Comparisons of polyelectrolyte theories with experimental data on
polynucleotide double helix–single strand thermal transitions have
been reported for quantitative theoretical analysis of NaDNA melting
in NaCl solutions
polymer market in the US has witnessed a series of consolidations
over the past 10 years. The early industry participants were
unsuccessful due to costly manufacturing technologies and absence of
enough legislation to fuel the market. This led to a standstill in
the market evolution of biodegradable polymers.
- The U.S.
biodegradable polymer market revenues were estimated at $27.0
million, corresponding to 22.9 million pounds of unit shipment. The
U.S. biodegradable polymer market revenue is forecast to grow to
$67.8 million in 2010 at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of
12.2 percent. Market Innovation by major corporations will boost the
sales of biodegradable polymers. Enhancing the functional properties
of biodegradable polymers and cost competitiveness of the resin will
give it a significant thrust in the right direction.
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