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Information @ a Glance

  • Polypeptides are chains of amino acids. Proteins are made up of one or more polypeptide molecules.

  • A polypeptide is a long, continuous, and unbranched peptide. Proteins consist of one or more polypeptides arranged in a biologically functional way and are often bound to cofactors, or other proteins.

  • An amino acid polymer is known as a polypeptide. A polypeptide can be composed of 20 different possible monomers that can, in theory, be linked together in any imaginable order.

  • In contrast to peptides, polypeptides function as hormones that trigger specific physiological processes. In humans, hormone secretions of polypeptides occur in the endocrine system through a series of glands distributed throughout the body.

  • Polypeptide growth factors are a diverse group of hormone-like agents that regulate growth and differentiation through cell surface receptors.

  • A potential solution to the conundrum of polypeptide hormone specificity has recently emerged in a series of articles detailing the intranuclear translocation and action of peptide ligands and their receptors, or fragments thereof.

  • Acceptance of an intranuclear function for polypeptide ligands and their receptors, however, is not universal. This may be due to a lack of a larger perspective on the intranuclear action of all ligand/receptor complexes. Many of the concerns regarding the function of intranuclear polypeptide ligand/receptors can be addressed by examining the parallels that exist with other acknowledged signaling pathways.

  • Despite the amount of technology developed for recombinant protein production, optimization of the expression strategy is often needed for a large number of proteins or peptides. Factors that need to be considered are production and recovery in sufficient yield of the active polypeptide.

  • Peptide thioesters are versatile synthetic intermediates that are useful in polypeptide synthesis. For example, native chemical ligation using peptide thioesters as building blocks is a very useful and convenient method for polypeptide synthesis.

  • The general chemical requirements for the synthesis of peptide involve the blocking of carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of the second amino acid.

  • Two methods for the synthesis of peptides are the ringopening polymerization (ROP) of amino acid N-carboxyanhydrides (NCAs) and solid-phase synthesis.

  • Phage display is a powerful technology for engineering polypeptides that bind virtually any target, and also for in- vestigating the binding speciącities of natural protein ligand interaction.

  • The use of bacterially expressed peptide segments in combination with chemically synthesized ones as building blocks offers great potential as a route to the synthesis of a wide variety of polypeptides.

  • Proopiomelanocortin (POMC) is the polypeptide precursor of ACTH. First discovered in anterior pituitary corticotroph cells, it has more recently been revealed to have many other physiological aspects.

  • The utilisation of peptide synthesis technology in solving health problems of worldwide importance was mainly dictated by the desire to obtain stable products devoid of the various contaminants often seen in recombinant material (glycosylation variants, proteases, DNA, endotoxins) in record time and in reasonable quantities to perform preclinical testing.

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