Insulator is a material that resists the flow of electric current. It is
an object intended to support or separate electrical conductors without
passing current through itself.
High-voltage insulators used for high-voltage power transmission are
made from glass, porcelain, or composite polymer materials.
Porcelain insulators possesses all the major characteristics of
technical ceramics, e.g. insulating capabilities, dimensional stability,
hardness, thermal resistance and resistance to corrosion.
insulator consists of a nonconducting material such as porcelain, glass,
plastic, polymer, or wood that is formed into a shape that will isolate
a wire from a physical support (or "pin") on a telegragh, utility pole
or other structure, provide a means to hold the insulator to the pin,
and provide a means to secure the conductor to the insulator.
Porcelain insulators are made from clay, quartz or alumina and feldspar,
and are covered with a smooth glaze to shed dirt.
design of insulators often includes deep grooves, or sheds, that
provides increased arc-lengths. Insulators made from porcelain rich in
alumina are used where high mechanical strength is a criterion.
Several companies had started making insulators from "dry press"
porcelain, so-called because the almost dry porcelain in granular form
was pressed (dry) into 2 or 3 piece steel molds. These insulators tended
to be porous and they were practical only for lower voltages and in
typical examples of dry process insulators include U-701, U-744, U-928B,
and U-935A, as well as a multitude of smaller signal styles made for low
Glaze welding process an insulator was produced in 2 or 3 "shells", or
pieces. These pieces were glazed and then stuck together and fired. The
glaze would "weld" the pieces together, producing one insulator.
Porcelain insulators are widely used in electrical applications such as
power transmission and distribution. Primarily, the function of these
insulators is to insulate the distribution lines carrying electricity.
Further, in applications of railway traction lines, they are also
subjected to adverse environmental conditions and mechanical vibrations.
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