vaccine is an antigenic preparation used to establish immunity to a
Vaccines are based on the concept of variolation.
process of distributing and administrating vaccines is referred to as
Vaccines can be prophylactic or or therapeutic.
Vaccines may be dead or inactivated organisms or
purified products derived from them.
Vaccine have traditionally been produced in chicken eggs, a new
technology-cell-based vaccine production-could save hundreds of
thousands of lives in the event of an outbreak of pandemic influenza, or
some other infectious disease.
new approach would use mammalian cells (kidney cells are often used) to
grow the influenza viruses. Cell-based vaccine production could more
easily meet "surge capacity needs" because cells could be frozen and
stored in advance of an epidemic or developed rapidly in response to an
Cell-based vaccine production dramatically reduces the possibility for
contamination and promises to be more reliable, flexible, and expandable
than egg-based methods.
place of eggs, cell-based vaccine production utilizes laboratory-grown
cell lines that are capable of hosting a growing virus. The virus is
injected into the cells where it multiplies. The cells' outer walls are
removed, harvested, purified, and inactivated. A vaccine can be produced
in a matter of weeks. Polio vaccine is currently produced using the
Vaccines are used in poultry production to control clinical disease or
poultry production vaccination is most commonly applied in order to
protect the stock on the particular farm being vaccinated.
Vaccines may be directed at diseases caused by viruses, mycoplasma,
bacteria or parasites.
is one of the world's largest producer of a recombinant vaccine against
hepatitis B. It is the only producer of a vaccine against the bacterium
that causes meningitis-B. They have recently developed a promising
recombinant vaccine which protects cattle disease bearing ticks.
Vaccine production costs have a significant fixed cost component,
reaching up to 90 percent of total costs.
target population for vaccination could potentially be the entire global
population of over six billion; this would require comprehensive
resources to support operational and logistic demands in many countries.