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Information @ a Glance

General
  • The rare earth elements comprise fifteen lanthanide elements (atomic number, Z = 57–71) as well as yttrium (Z = 39) and scandium (Z = 21), although promethium (Z = 61) does not appear in nature due to its radioactive instability.They are an extremely coherent group in terms of chemical behavior and have recently been subjected to intense investigation sin the field of marine geochemistry.
  • All of the rare earth metals are found in group 3 of the periodic table, and the 6th and 7th periods. The Rare Earth Elements are made up of two series of elements, the Lanthanide and Actinide Series.

Processing

  • Monazite, one of the major sources of rare earths, is normally opened by digestion with hot concentrated caustic soda solution. Caustic digestion dissolves phosphate and leaves a hydrated mixed metal oxides cake containing thorium, uranium and rare earths. By leaching this cake with hydrochloric acid at pH 3.0 to 3.2 bulk of the rare earths are preferentially removed and separated.
  • The individual extraction of rare-earth elements (from terbium to ytterbium, plus yttrium) was systematically investigated in hydrochloric acid aqueous solution, where the metals concentration ranging from 0.05mol/L to 0.5mol/L, using a solvent mixture containing 1.0M of the extracting organic know as Ionquest-801, diluted in an aliphatic organic compound, and an acidic range of 0.001mol/L to 0.7mol/L, aiming at identifying suitable conditions to the fractioning of liquors with similar chemical composition to those obtained during the processing of a Brazilian xenotime concentrate, using lower acidity levels than those usually practiced.

Technology

  • The inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) for the determination of individual rare-earth elements (REE) was evaluated by comparison with instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) and x-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF) .
  • As rare earth elements are widely used in many fields, we deem it worthwhile to add rare earth elements to the thermal
    sprayed cored wires and observe their effect on the coatings. Therefore, this research is an effort to develop the Fe-Cr-Ni
    austenitic stainless steel thermal sprayed cored wires with rare earth elements added and study the effect of the rare earth
    elements on the coating’s corrosion-resistance.

Functions

  • Differences in behavior among the chlorides of seven rare earth elements (REEs)—yttrium (Y), cerium (Ce), and praseodymium (Pr) (light REEs); europium (Eu) and dysprosium (Dy) (medium REEs); ytterbium (Yb) and lutetium (Lu) (heavy REEs)—were investigated through intravenous administration of the REEs to rats.
  • The validity of using rare earth elements as flow markers of undigested residues was evaluated by comparing mean gastrointestinal residence time (GMRT) of rare earths specifically applied to cottonseed hulls (CSH) to that of the indigestible fiber of CSH. Feces were collected from five lambs fed a mineral supplemented diet of CSH containing 52 g CP/kg DM and five lambs fed a CSH plus cottonseed meal diet (CSH+CSM) containing 123 g CP/kg DM.

Market

  • Due to the wide fields in end use of rare earth elements, the market trend of rare earth products is closely linked to the whole economic environment. The slump of global economy beginning from the year of 2000 certainly made great impact on rare earth industry. In this article, a brief comment is made on the impact of global economic background to Chinese rare earth industry
  • The annual growth rate of over 9% in Chinese rare earth industry in 90s of 20th mostly benefited from end uses of New economy‚ industry. Gue-Consilium has announced the discovery of many economic-grade samples of rare earth
    elements in the Grevet Twp, Lebel-sur-Quevillon area of northwestern Quebec, Canada. This area may become the first rare earths mine in Canada and eastern North America.

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