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  • Laboratory tests were performed to determine the effect of five commonly used carbonaceous additives on new sand mixes. The additives evaluated were seacoal, pitch, petroleum asphalt, Gilsonite of a "coarse" and "fine" grind, and blown asphalt. Physical sand properties developed with non-seacoal carbonaceous materials were equal to or superior to seacoal at significantly lower additive levels. Gilsonite and asphalt mixes appeared to improve physical properties of density, water requirements and green, dry, baked and hot strengths. An even greater improvement in foundry sand green, baked, and hot strength was obtained by increasing the fineness of grind of the Gilsonite. It is postulated the finer material provides better sand coating. The higher strength may be attributed to improved sand wetting by the thermoplastic asphalt materials. 

  • For technical and economic reasons, molds and cores for metal casting are composed of a combination of sands and additives. In the green-sand molding process. additives include a small percentage of bentonite, which acts as a binder, and combustible additives such as seacoal. In the shellmolded or chemically bonded casting process, small amounts of organic material and chemicals are added.


  • Sand is used to modify soils and construct turf systems for various sports turf applications to promote proper air and water management. Without a doubt sand is the most extensively used amendment on a weight basis to modify turf systems. The use of sand has been extensively reviewed by the United States Golf Association (USGA) in regards to putting green construction. A wide range of sports turf applications such as football, baseball, race tracks and soccer, are utilizing the concepts of the USGA putting green construction guidelines to design and build turf systems for high performance demands. Not all sports programs have the budget for sand based sports fields and will utilize sand in other ways to improve the performance of a field.
  • Sand is often used in conjunction with the native soil in what is known as a by-pass system. The Cambridge™ system is a commercially available system that uses sand in trenches and for creating a permeable sand cap over the trenches to remove water during periods of high rainfall. There are several designs that use a by-pass approach with sand. We are often approached about mixing sand with native soils to improve permeability and to lower excessive water holding values. The mixing of sand with soil is not as effective as some are led to believe. If the proper sand particle size is used and the correct amount of sand is added, some benefit can be realized.
  • Developments in core-making technology and binding agents have resulted in an increase in specific strength. Aside from a low content of binding composition in the core moulding material, there has also been a raft of technological and economic advantages leading to the cost-effective achievement of the required strength levels – such as improved shake-out and reclamation performance and a reduction in emissions and gas-induced defects.


  • Feedstock for the green sand process consists of high-quality silica sand; about 10% bentonite clay (as binder), 2 - 5% water and about 5% coal dust or starch (which improves the casting finish). The type of metal being cast determines which additives and what gradation of sand is used. Chemically bonded sand cast systems require one or more organic binders (usually proprietary) in conjunction with catalysts and have different hardening/setting procedures. Typically, about 1 ton of foundry sand is required for each ton of iron or steel casting produced.

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