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  • Scandium is a chemical element that has the symbol Sc and atomic number 21.
  • A silvery white metal that is always present as compounds, scandium ores occur as rare minerals from Scandinavia and elsewhere.
  • It is sometimes considered along with yttrium, and the lanthanides and actinides, to be a rare earth element.
  • Scandium is a rare, hard, silvery, rough very dark metallic element that develops a slightly yellowish or pinkish cast when exposed to air.
  • Scandium is distributed sparsely on earth, occurring only as trace quantities in many minerals.Scandium is more common in the sun and certain stars than on Earth.


  • The main application of scandium by weight is in aluminium-scandium alloys for minor aerospace industry components, and for unusual designs sports equipment (bikes, baseball bats, firearms, etc.) which rely on high performance materials.
  • It is used in lacrosse sticks; a light yet strong metal is needed for precise accuracy, speed and its useful in the making of aircraft and spacecraft structures, probably alloyed with other metals.
  • Scandium (45Sc) NMR was used to explore the B-site order-disorder in the Perovskite piezoelectric material.
  • Scandium can significantly increase strength and reduce grain size and has been added to aluminum alloys in the former soviet union for missiles and MIG fighter applications.


  • The extraction of Sc(III) proceeds according to the cation-exchange reaction at lower acidity and to a solvating reaction at higher acidity.
  • The quantitative extraction for Sc(III) with PC-88A was found within 1 min while with D2EHPA the same was attained only after 5 mins of shaking, though 77.6 % Sc(III) was extracted into the organic phase within 1 min.
  • The extraction of Sc(III) was quantitative in the low acidic range of 0.01–0.1 mol·dm–3 HClO4 with both, 0.1 mol·dm–3 D2EHPA and 0.03 mol·dm–3 PC-88A respectively.
  • Separation of Sc(III) was also carried out from some commonly associated metals and the method further extended for its recovery from synthetic and real solutions of Fe(III), Al(III) and Mg(II) scrap.


  • The differential cross sections for the ground-state transitions are, in general, more than 10 times larger than those for the transitions to excited states; this is interpreted to be a consequence of the large overlap of the ground-state configurations of scandium 45 and calcium 43.
  • The ESR spectrum of Sc3@C82 in toluene and CS2 solutions exhibits the symmetric hyperfine splitting of the 22 lines with a line width of 0.5G at room temperature, which was consistent with the structure of Sc3@C82 having the C3v symmetry.
  • The two-stage amorphization found in the present case of scandium molybdate is in contrast to the single-stage amorphization reported in other isostructural Sc2(WO4)3 and Lu2(WO4)3 occurring at 4 and 5 GPa, respectively

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