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Information @ a Glance


  • A seed is a small embryonic plant enclosed in a covering called the seed coat, usually with some stored food.

  • Seed is the product of the ripened ovule of gymnosperm and angiosperm plants which occurs after fertilization and some growth within the mother plant.

  • The formation of the seed completes the process of reproduction in seed plants (started with the development of flowers and pollination), with the embryo developed from the zygote and the seed coat from the integuments of the ovule.

  • Seeds have been an important development in the reproduction and spread of flowering plants, relative to more primitive plants like mosses, ferns and liverworts, which do not have seeds and use other means to propagate themselves.

Seed Propagation

  • Sexual propagation involves the union of the pollen (male) with the egg (female) to produce a seed.

  • The seed is made up of three main parts: the outer seed coat, which protects the seed; a food reserve (e.g., the endosperm); and the embryo, which is the young plant itself.

  • A dormant seed is defined as a viable seed that will not germinate when exposed to the proper environmental conditions necessary for germination of that plant species.

  • Many seeds from temperate woody species need a certain number of hours less than 45 degrees F. in a moist environment before germination (and bud break) can take place.


  • The role of the seed sector is not only to ensure adequacy in seed quality but also to ensure varietals diversity.

  • Indian seed programme boasts one of the biggest seed markets in the world, with annual sales at around US $920 million. Of this, domestic off take accounts for US $900 million and sales in the global market account for the remaining US $20 million.

  • India is endowed with second largest area of farmland, and the largest area of irrigated land, in the world and, with its huge germplasm diversity, its seed industry is well placed to serve both domestic and international markets.

  • Access to proprietary genes and technology is essential for developing and commercializing genetically modified varieties. Dispute and uncertainty over intellectual property rights have induced mergers, take-overs and strategic alliances.

  • Europe GM field trial activity has followed a similar trend to that seen in the US, however the fall in field trial activity in recent years has been even more pronounced.

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