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- A snake is an
elongate reptile of the suborder Serpentes. Like all reptiles, snakes
are covered in scales.
- All snakes are
carnivorous and can be distinguished from legless lizards by their lack
of eyelids, limbs, external ears, and vestiges of forelimbs.
- The 2,700+ species
of snakes spread across every continent except Antarctica ranging in
size from the tiny, 10 cm long thread snake to pythons and anacondas
over 5 m long.
- Snake venom is a
highly developed form of saliva, injected by the snake into its victim
through hollow, modified fangs.
- The venom is
modified saliva, delivered through fangs.The fangs of 'advanced'
venomous snakes like viperids and elapids are hollow in order to inject
venom more effectively, while the fangs of rear-fanged snakes such as
the Boomslang merely have a groove on the posterior edge to channel
venom into the wound.
- Snake venoms are
complex mixtures of proteins and are stored in poison glands at the back
of the head.
- The bite of
non-venomous snakes are usually harmless because their teeth are
designed for grabbing and holding, rather than tearing or inflicting a
deep puncture wound.
- The most common and
effective method is through antivenom, a serum made from the venom of
the snake. Some antivenom is species specific (monovalent) while some is
made for use with multiple species in mind .
- The anti-snake venom
activities of the methanolic extract of the bulb of Crinum jagus plant
(Amaryllidaceae) were investigated in vitro and in vivo against the
venoms of three notable snake species: Echis ocellatus, Bitis
arietans and Naja nigricollis.
- Snake venom, the
most complex of all poisons is a mixture of enzymatic and non-enzymatic
compounds as well as other non-toxic proteins including carbohydrates
- Acute renal
failure (ARF) associated with poisonous snake bite has been reported
from various parts of the world .
- Snake venom
poisoning is a common medical emergency and the epidemiological features
vary from region to region.
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