Soap is a
surfactant used in conjunction with water for washing and cleaning that
historically comes in solid bars but also in the form of a thick liquid,
especially from soap dispensers in public washrooms.
Historically soap has been composed of sodium (soda ash) or potassium
(potash) salts of fatty acids derived by reacting fat with lye in a process
known as saponification.
Soap is made by combining tallow (or other hard animal
fat) or vegetable or fish oil with an alkaline solution. The two most
important alkalis in use are caustic soda and caustic potash.
commonly prepared from lipids, which are generally animal or vegetable fats
produced industrially in four basic steps : Saponification, Glycerine
removal, Soap purification, Finishing.
popular soap making processes today is the cold process method, where fats
such as olive oil react with lye.
- Soap has been
manufactured by means of the reaction between an alkali, nowadays caustic
soda, and animal fats or vegetable oils such as tallow, coconut or palm
kernel oil. This process is known as saponification, and in a modern
soap-making plant it is carried out by mixing together the oils and
alkali, and then heating them under pressure to around 130 degree.
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