- The strawberry (Fragaria) is a genus of plants in the family Rosaceae and the fruit of these plants. There are more than 20 named species and many hybrids and cultivars. The most common strawberries grown commercially are cultivars of the Garden strawberry, Fragaria
- The strawberry is an accessory fruit; that is, the fleshy part is derived not from the ovaries which are the "seeds" but from the peg at the bottom of the hypanthium that held the ovaries. So from a technical standpoint, the seeds are the actual fruits of the plant, and the flesh of the strawberry is modified receptacle tissue. It is whitish-green as it develops and in most species turns red when ripe.
- Strawberry fruit are eaten raw or used in making juice, desserts, jam, syrup and wine. Fruit, leaves and roots are also used medicinally. The Modern Garden Strawberry Fragaria ananassa, which is the main species grown these days, arose in the gardens of Europe as a hybrid between two New World species that had been introduced to Europe by the Spanish colonists.
- Strawberries are shallow-rooted and grow best in sandy loam soils, which drain well, are well-supplied with humus and have a pH between 6.0 and 6.5. Clay soils drain poorly and are harder to manage but can be improved by adding organic matter. During the growing season, control weeds by mulching and handpulling. Mulching, handpulling, hoeing and tilling are the best means of control in a small planting.
- Strawberry harvest begins in the latter part of April in the Sandhills and Coastal plains, early May in the Piedmont, and late May in the mountains. You should pick strawberries every other day or three times a week. The best time to pick is in early morning when berries are still cool. Strawberry P and K fertilization recommendations are based on the calibrated Mehlich-1 soil test results and vary according to the soil-test level of P and K . N requirements are 150 lb N per acre for the total season .
- Strawberries are one of the easiest fruit crops for
gardeners to grow. However, they are susceptible to many disease and insect pests which must be managed to produce consistent crops of edible fruit. Chemical pesticides are only one tool in producing a berry crop. Other management practices such as
fertilizing, irritating and renovation are equally important to the health of the crop; pesticides wont compensate for poor management.
- Growing strawberries as an annual crop on black plastic requires a different weed management strategy than the perennial matted row strawberries. When black plastic is combined with fumigation by methyl bromide, excellent control of most weeds in the row can be expected. However, weeds that have hard seed coats, such as vetch and clover, emerge for long periods of time and can establish in the row.
Production & Processing
- Excellent cultural information for conventional strawberry
production planting systems, pest control, cultivar recommendations,
etc.can be obtained from the Cooperative Extension Service in most states. Strawberry varieties are classified as either “June-bearing” or “Everbearing.”
June-bearing or short-day varieties start forming flower buds as the daylength gets shorter and temperatures get cooler. Everbearing or day-neutral varieties are insensitive to day length and produce fruit throughout the season as long as night-time temperatures drop below 60° F.
- The residence time distributions (RTD) of an industrial strawberry pulp (with non-Newtonian rheology) continuously processed in a pilot scale ohmic heater were numerically simulated using a computational fluid dynamic. The use of this continuous ohmic heater to efficiently pasteurize strawberry pulps is possible if using voltages higher than 100 V and flow rates lower than 2.0 kg/min.
- California is the U.S. leader in strawberry production, producing 83% of the
country fresh strawberries and 89% of the processed strawberries. Despite continued urbanization and development pressure in Southern California, where the climate
is most ideal for strawberry production, California strawberry acreage has continued to increase annually. Nationally,
strawberry sales compose 6.5% of all produce sales in-season and 3.5% of sales out of strawberry season.
- Oregon also has a long way to go to regain previous shares of the U.S. market. Oregon's share of the U.S. processed strawberry market has declined dramatically with the gap taken up first by Mexico, then by California, whose producers accounted for 70 percent of the U.S. market The U.S. processed strawberry market receives inputs from producing areas on both sides of our nation's borders.
- An University researchers recently analyzed the antioxidants in eight popular northeastern strawberry cultivars, and they found significant differences. They think this is important because it could help breeders develop antioxidant-rich strawberry cultivars and influence which cultivars are sold commercially and used in food products. With growing concern about healthy food, many consumers may be willing to pay more for berries and berry products that deliver more health value.
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