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Information @ a Glance

General

  • In non-scientific use, the term sugar refers to sucrose - a white crystalline solid disaccharide. Humans most commonly use sucrose as their sugar of choice for altering the flavor and properties of beverages and food. Commercially-produced table sugar comes either from sugar cane or from sugar beet. Manufacturing and preparing food may involve other sugars, including palm sugar and fructose, generally obtained from corn (maize) or fruit.

  • In biochemistry, a sugar is the simplest molecule that can be identified as a carbohydrate. These include monosaccharides and disaccharides, trisaccharides and the oligosaccharides; these being sugars composed of 1, 2, 3 or more units. Sugars contain either aldehyde groups (-CHO) or ketone groups (C=O), where there are carbon-oxygen double bonds, making the sugars reactive. Functional properties of sugar includes sensory properties, physical properties, microbial properties, chemical properties.

Manufacturing Process

  • For sugarcane, the process of refining is carried out in following steps.
    Pressing of sugarcane to extract the juice.
    Boiling the juice until it begins to thicken and sugar begins to crystallize.
    Spinning the crystals in a centrifuge to remove the syrup, producing raw sugar.
    Shipping the raw sugar to a refinery where it is washed and filtered to remove remaining non-sugar ingredients and color.
    Crystallizing, drying and packaging the refined sugar.

  • Sugar manufacturing operations are cane handling, milling, clarification/evaporation, the pan stage, the fugal stage, final sugar, energy supply systems and associated operations.

Technology

  • A company in India introduced Double Refined White Sulphurless Sugar manufactured by the unique Defeco Remelt Phospho Floatation Process is applied, in which the sugar after it has crystallized is melted all over again and all the impurities are removed without the use of sulphur. It has no impurities, so its crystals have a natural translucent white colour and do not require bleaching.

  • Cube sugar, a product used in Sweden for more than a hundred years, is manufactured from sugar that has been moistened in steam and then shaped in moulds using a special vibration method. This is a technique developed by Arlövs Sockerbruk.

Application

  • Using a sugar cube, Instructables shows us how to remove unwanted logos from a cell phone. The idea behind it is to use a sugar cube to scratch off the stickers on the cell phone. The sugar should not leave a mark on plastic or metal.

Market

  • The sugar industry is one of the largest sectors of the Indian economy and India is now the largest producer and consumer of sugar in the world. Maharashtra contributes over one-third of country’s sugar output (36 per cent) followed by Uttar Pradesh with 25 per cent. Tamil Nadu and Karnataka are the other two important sugar-producing states in the country.

  • The country's two biggest sugar producers Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh have reported a robust growth in output, pushing up the total volumes by 47.7 per cent to 278.6 lakh tonnes during October-July 2006-07. Sugar production in Maharastra has increased by 74.7 per cent, while that in the northern state by 46.7 per cent. 

  • In view of the bumper sugarcane crop, sugar production is expected to scale up to a new high of 299 lakh tonnes during the October-September 2007-08 period, the think-tank said. Domestic consumption is, however, likely to rise to only 200 lakh tonnes and exports to 25 lakh tonnes, CMIE said. 

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