Sugarcane or Sugar cane (Saccharum) is a genus of 6 to 37 species
(depending on taxonomic inter (family Poaceae, tribe Andropogoneae),
native to warm temperate to tropical regions.
have stout, jointed, fibrous stalks that are rich in sugar and measure 2
to 6 meters tall.
the sugarcane species interbreed, and the major commercial cultivars are
Sugarcane cultivation requires a tropical or subtropical climate, with a
minimum of 600 mm (24 in) of annual moisture.
Sugarcane is propagated from cuttings, rather than from seeds; although
certain types still produce seeds, modern methods of stem cuttings have
become the most common method of reproduction.
cutting must contain at least one bud, and the cuttings are usually
planted by hand. Once planted, a stand of cane can be harvested several
times; after each harvest, the cane sends up new stalks, called ratoons.
Sugarcane is harvested mostly by hand or sometimes mechanically.
Traditionally, sugarcane has been processed in two stages. Sugarcane
mills, located in sugarcane-producing regions, extract sugar from
freshly harvested sugarcane, resulting in raw sugar for later refining,
and in "mill white" sugar for local consumption.
refineries purify raw sugar to produce refined white sugar, a product
that is more than 99 percent pure sucrose.
two stages are slowly becoming blurred. Increasing affluence in the
sugar-producing tropics has led to an increase in demand for refined
sugar products in those areas, where a trend toward combined milling and
refining has developed.
consumption of raw sugarcane cylinders or cubes, which are chewed to
extract the juice, and the bagasse is spat out.
Freshly extracted juice by hand or electrically operated small mills,
with a touch of lemon and ice, makes a delicious and popular drink.
Molasses, used as a sweetener and as a syrup accompanying other foods,
such as cheese or cookies.
Sugarcane is also used in rum production, especially in the Caribbean.
is India's second largest agro-processing industry. Sugar area accounts
for 2.2 percent of country's total cropped area.
India's domestic sugar market is estimated at Rs. 25,000 crore.
45 million Indian farmers and their families are dependent on the sugar
Pradesh accounts for 35 percent of India's total sugarcane production
but productivity wise the state lags behind the national average of 70
tonne per hectare. Sugarcane production in UP is around 60 tonne per
sugar industry's total installed capacity (estimated) stands at 16.5 mn
tonne per annum while actual production stood at 18.5 mn tonne.
Tamilnadu alone has 38 mills, of which 19 are privately owned. India is
one of the leading manufacturers of sugar, and one of the largest
consumers too. Tamilnadu's share in the sugar industry was considerable.
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