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  • Sulfur or sulphur is the chemical element that has the atomic number 16 and it is denoted with the symbol S. It is an abundant multivalent non-metal. Sulfur, in its native form, is a yellow crystalline solid.
    Sulphur is a pale yellow, odourless, brittle solid, which is insoluble in water but soluble in carbon disulphide.

  • Sulfur occurs native in the vicinity of volcanos and hot springs. It is widely distributed in nature as iron pyrites, galena, sphalerite, cinnabar, stibnite, gypsum, epsom salts, celestite, barite, etc.


  • Sulfur is extracted by mainly two processes: the Sicilian process and the Frasch process. The Frasch process produces sulfur with a 99.5% purity content, and which needs no further purification. The sulfur produced by the Sicilian process must be purified by distillation.

  • The Claus process is used to extract elemental sulfur from hydrogen sulfide produced in hydrodesulfurization of petroleum or from natural gas.
  • Sulfur degasification is a process that removes dissolved H2S and H2Sx vapor from produced liquid sulfur. Undegassed sulfur presents odor and potential toxic hazardous conditions in the storage, loading and transport of liquid sulfur.


  • Sulfur is a component of black gunpowder, and is used in the vulcanization of natural rubber and a fungicide. It is also used extensively in making phosphatic fertilizers. A tremendous tonnage is used to produce sulfuric acid, the most important manufactured chemical.
  • Sulfur compounds are also used in detergents, fungicides, dyestuffs, and agrichemicals. In silver-based photography sodium and ammonium thiosulfate are used as "fixing agents."
  • Sulfur is an ingredient in some acne treatments.
  • Sulfur is used as a light-generating medium in the rare lighting fixtures known as sulfur lamps.


  • Sulfur is an emerging market. Strong Growth is expected in this segment.
  • The global sulfur industry remained divided into two sectors―discretionary and nondiscretionary.
  • Worldwide recovered sulfur output is expected to increase
    significantly in the future. For the next 2 or 3 years, sulfur
    supply and demand is expected to be reasonably well balanced.

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