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Information @ a Glance

  • Cotton is a subtropical, perennial plant with an indeterminate growth habit. Vegetative and reproductive development occurs simultaneously. While vegetative growth is necessary to support reproductive growth, excessive vegetative growth can be detrimental. Under excessive vegetative growth, fruit abortion may increase, crop maturity may be delayed, and harvest reduced. Growth habits of cotton varieties are inconsistent, with many characterized by their tendency for aggressive vegetative growth.
  • The growth habit of these varieties combined with exposure to high availability of nutrients, timely rainfall or irrigation, and delayed fruit retention can encourage excessive vegetative growth. Cotton plants produce several natural growth regulators or plant hormones, which modify plant growth and divert energy allocation within the plant.

Ginning Of Cotton

  • Cotton ginning is seasonal. It begins with the maturing of the cotton crop, which varies by region, and ends when the crop is finished. Each year the cotton ginning season starts in the lower Southwest region in midsummer, continues through the south central and other geographical regions in late summer and early autumn, and ends in the upper Southwest region in late autumn and early winter. 

  • Cotton is subjected to three basic conditioning processes--drying, cleaning, and extracting--before it is processed for separation of lint and seed. To ensure adequate conditioning, cotton gins typically use two conditioning systems (drying, cleaning, and extracting) in series. 

  • The role of the cotton gin has changed dramatically in the last 50 years to keep up with technological and production changes in the cotton industry. At one time, the gin's only function was to remove cottonseed from the fiber. Today, gins must not only separate the seed from the fiber, they must also dry and clean the fiber and package it into bales before it reaches the textile mill.

Applications Of Surgical Cotton

  • Surgical Cotton also known as absorbent cotton wool or purified cotton is used at large in surgery as a dressing material for burns & wounds as a cotton bedding for maintaining a uniform temperature in inflamed parts and therefore finds applications in Hospitals, Dispensaries, Nursing homes, etc.


  • Cotton, the most important fibre crop of India plays a dominant role in its agrarian and industrial economy. It is the backbone of our textile industry, accounting for 70% of total fibre consumption in textile sector, and 38% of the country's export, fetching over Rs. 42,000 crores. Area under cotton cultivation in India (8.9 million ha) is the highest in the world, i.e., 25% of the world area and employs seven million people for their living.

  • Cotton productivity in India is quite low as compared to world standards. The modern cotton production technology relies heavily on the use of fertilisers and on chemicals to control insect pests, diseases, weeds and growth regulators. Cotton cultivated on 5% cultivable land consumes 54% of total pesticides used in Indian agriculture, and in some pockets, the rates are higher than this, leaving immense ecological and human hazards as reported by World Health Organisation.

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