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is a chemical element with the symbol Ti and atomic number 22.
is present in meteorites and the sun. Rocks obtained during the
Apollo 17 lunar mission showed presence of 12.1% TiO2;
rocks obtained during earlier Apollo missions show lower
- It is
ductile only when it is free of oxygen. The metal, which burns
in air, is the only element that burns in nitrogen.
is resistant to dilute sulfuric and hydrochloric acid, most
organic acids, most chlorine gas, and chloride solutions.
titanium consists of five isotopes with atomic masses from 46 to
50. All are stable. Eight other unstable isotopes are known.
Commercial production of titanium metal involves the
chlorination of titanium-containing mineral concentrates to
produce titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4), which is reduced
with magnesium (Kroll process) or sodium (Hunter process) to
form a commercially pure form of titanium metal.
Titanium is produced using the Kroll process. The steps
involved include extraction, purification, sponge
production, alloy creation, and forming and shaping.
Armstrong process produces titanium by the reduction of
titanium tetrachloride through reaction with sodium.
new processing technique could reduce the amount of energy
required and the cost to make titanium parts from powders by
up to 50 percent, making it feasible to use titanium alloys
for brake rotors, artificial joint replacements and armor
for military vehicles.
The majority of titanium applications in the Chemical
Processing Industry have resulted from the
excellent corrosion resistance it exhibits in common
organic and inorganic media.
Titanium is important as an alloying agent with
aluminum, molybdenum, manganese, iron, and other metals.
Titanium dioxide is extensively used for both house
paint and artist's paint, because it is permanent and
has good covering power.
Titanium applications are most significant in jet engine
and airframe components that are subject to temperatures
up to 1100° F and for other critical structural parts.
The largest single use of titanium is in the aircraft
gas turbine engine.
aerospace industry is the single largest market for
titanium products primarily due to the exceptional
strength to weight ratio, elevated temperature
performance and corrosion resistance.
Consumption of titanium used in titanium metal and
steel production continued to increase because of
numerous orders for commercial aircraft, military
hardware, and industrial equipment.
Global demand growth for TiO2 is expected to
increase at historical rates of about 3% annually.
Growth in aerospace, defense, and industrial uses is
expected to drive demand for titanium metal for the
The new technology coupled with a wide range of uses
will drive the US market for titanium dioxide, with
the market jumping to $2.2 billion in 2009 and $2.3
billion by 2012.
In coming years, researchers expect lightweight
corrosion-resistant titanium alloys to make
their way into many other products, including
automobiles, which will benefit from the
decreased weight and will be able to deliver
improved fuel economy.
To meet the increasing demand of the cyclical
aerospace sector, and perhaps to invest in a
lucrative stockplle, titanium producers have
started to scale - up their sponge and melting
The production of low-cost titanium for
automotive applications will require cost
reductions in both raw materials and secondary
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