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  • Tungsten , also known as wolfram.
  • Tungsten is a chemical element that has the symbol W and atomic number 74.
  • Pure tungsten is a steel-gray to tin-white metal.
  • Tungsten is a comparatively rare metal, being the 54th most abundant element in the earth’s crust.
  • Many tungsten minerals glow under ultraviolet light.
  • Tungsten features the lowest vapour pressure of all metals.
  • All tungsten deposits are of magmatic or hydrothermal origin.


  • Tungsten is usually mined underground.
  • The Tungsten ore is first crushed and milled to liberate the tungsten mineral crystals.
  • Most tungsten deposits are formed when hot geothermal fluids rising toward the surface cool and react with the surrounding rock.
  • Most tungsten concentrates are processed chemically to ammonium paratungstate (APT).
  • Recycling is an important factor in the world’s tungsten supply.
  • The fabrication of tungsten metal film can be obtained by spin coating process.
  • The analytical methods are available for detecting, measuring, and/or monitoring tungsten, its metabolites, and other biomarkers of exposure and effect to tungsten.


  • Tungsten oxide nanomaterials were synthesized by a modified plasma arc gas condensation technique.
  • A fabrication technique is used to prepare tungsten metal tips suitable for multi-tip STM aiming nanometer scale probing.
  • Activated Combustion HVAF (AC-HVAF) spraying provides efficient deposition of metallic and tungsten-carbide coatings using solid particle spray technology.
  • Immobilisation of enzymes on the surface of tungsten –tungsten oxide pH-metric electrode in silica gel is obtained by the sol-gel method.


  • Most of the tungsten mines in Nevada have ceased production due to economic constraints.
  • Unfortunately, the U.S. does not mine tungsten, though it does have a few "large plants that take tungsten concentrate and produce intermediate products and finished products.
  • Tungsten's increasing uses and growing economic demand for the metal has helped prices climb more than 300% in almost 10 years to average $254.50 per metric ton unit of ammonium paratungstate.
  • The global demand of tungsten will remain stablity and development in the future and the international market price of tungsten will remain stability due to the ascend price of tungsten in the market in a few years

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