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  • Vanadium is a chemical element that has the symbol V and atomic number 23.
  • Vanadium is a soft and ductile, silver-grey metal. It has good resistance to corrosion by alkalis, sulfuric and hydrochloric acid. It oxidizes readily at about 933 K (660 C).
  • In biology, a vanadium atom is an essential component of some enzymes, particularly the vanadium nitrogenase used by some nitrogen-fixing micro-organisms.
  • Vanadium is found in about 65 different minerals among which are carnotite, roscoelite, vanadinite, and patronite, important sources of the metal. Vanadium is also found in phosphate rock and certain iron ores, and is present in some crude oils in the form of organic complexes.
  • Vanadium is a compound that occurs in nature as a white-to-gray metal, and is often found as crystals


  • Ferrovanadium and nitrided vanadium are common alloying agents used to improve the hardness and ductility of carbon-alloy, high-strength low-alloy, and full-alloy steels.
  • The vanadium redox battery (VRB) is a flow battery technology that has technical performance characteristics which are attractive for a number of industrial energy storage applications, including diesel-abatement concepts in remote area power supply (RAPS) applications, standby power plant, medium and large-scale grid-connected load-leveling, and distributed power conditioning.
  • Vanadium and niobium carbide layers exhibit superior peel strength and resistance to wear, corrosion, and oxidation when compared to other processes.
  • The use of Vanadium and niobium carbide layers exhibit superior peel strength and resistance to wear, corrosion, and oxidation when compared to other processes.
  • Vanadium oxide  is used as a catalyst in manufacturing sulfuric acid and maleic anhydride and in making ceramics.


  • A vanadium-vanadium redox battery technique can improve photovoltaic system performance, reliability and robustness by increasing the energy conversion efficiency of the battery to 87%, by making the battery life, efficiency and ongoing energy capacity independent of state of charge and load profiles and by reducing maintenance requirements.
  • The Vanadium industry, in conjunction with academia and defense labs, is applying its technological resources and experiences to apply beneficial commercial solutions for defense applications. 
  • The use of a Vanadium Battery with its very high energy conversion efficiency and no boost charge requirements directly relates to less PV being needed for the system.


  • The vanadium market remained broadly in balance during 2006, with world steel production continuing to rise, while there was little further substitution by ferro-niobium.
  • Vanadium supply increased in 2005, while high prices led to some substitution of ferro-vanadium by ferro-niobium in special steels.
  • The world vanadium consumption has risen significantly since 2002, reflecting both higher world steel production and higher unit vanadium consumption as the share of high-strength steels in total steel output rises.
  • In 2005, a surge in global steel production created an unprecedented demand for vanadium, reduced stockpiles, and sent the metal to an all time high of US$16.3/pound.

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