- Vanadium is a chemical element
that has the symbol V and atomic number 23.
- Vanadium is a soft and ductile,
silver-grey metal. It has good resistance to corrosion by alkalis,
sulfuric and hydrochloric acid. It oxidizes readily at about 933 K (660
- In biology, a vanadium atom is an
essential component of some enzymes, particularly the vanadium
nitrogenase used by some nitrogen-fixing micro-organisms.
- Vanadium is found in about 65
different minerals among which are carnotite, roscoelite, vanadinite,
and patronite, important sources of the metal. Vanadium is also found in
phosphate rock and certain iron ores, and is present in some crude oils
in the form of organic complexes.
- Vanadium is a compound that occurs
in nature as a white-to-gray metal, and is often found as
- Ferrovanadium and nitrided
vanadium are common alloying agents used to improve the hardness and
ductility of carbon-alloy, high-strength low-alloy, and full-alloy
- The vanadium redox battery (VRB)
is a flow battery technology that has technical performance
characteristics which are attractive for a number of industrial energy
storage applications, including diesel-abatement concepts in remote area
power supply (RAPS) applications, standby power plant, medium and
large-scale grid-connected load-leveling, and distributed power
- Vanadium and niobium carbide
layers exhibit superior peel strength and resistance to wear, corrosion,
and oxidation when compared to other processes.
- The use of Vanadium and niobium
carbide layers exhibit superior peel strength and resistance to wear,
corrosion, and oxidation when compared to other processes.
- Vanadium oxide is used as a
catalyst in manufacturing sulfuric acid and maleic anhydride and in
- A vanadium-vanadium redox battery
technique can improve photovoltaic system performance, reliability and
robustness by increasing the energy conversion efficiency of the battery
to 87%, by making the battery life, efficiency and ongoing energy
capacity independent of state of charge and load profiles and by
reducing maintenance requirements.
- The Vanadium industry, in
conjunction with academia and defense labs, is applying its
technological resources and experiences to apply beneficial commercial
solutions for defense applications.
- The use of a Vanadium Battery with
its very high energy conversion efficiency and no boost charge
requirements directly relates to less PV being needed for the
- The vanadium market remained
broadly in balance during 2006, with world steel production continuing
to rise, while there was little further substitution by ferro-niobium.
- Vanadium supply increased in 2005,
while high prices led to some substitution of ferro-vanadium by
ferro-niobium in special steels.
- The world vanadium consumption has
risen significantly since 2002, reflecting both higher world steel
production and higher unit vanadium consumption as the share of
high-strength steels in total steel output rises.
- In 2005, a surge in global steel
production created an unprecedented demand for vanadium, reduced
stockpiles, and sent the metal to an all time high of
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