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Information @ a Glance

  • Drinking water quality analyses performed by water testing laboratories.
  • Chemicals in drinking water which are toxic may cause either acute or chronic health effects.
  • The purpose of these two types of sampling locations such as point-of-entry (POE) after treatment or in the water distribution system (consumers tap) is to differentiate between contamination derived from the source water or contamination derived from the distribution pipes.


  • Water analyses are done by several methods. The most common types of measurements are gravimetric (weighing), electrochemical (using meters with electrodes) and optical (including visual).
  • Bacteriological water analysis is a method of analysing water to estimate the numbers of bacteria present and, if needed, to find out what sort of bacteria they are.
  • Alkalinity represents the buffering capacity of water and its ability to resist a change in pH.
  • Analysis for sodium is not usually made directly in a water analysis. Its concentration is estimated by the difference between the total of the anions and the total hardness.


  • Activated carbon filters will significantly improve taste and odor of drinking water and will effectively remove chlorine and specific adsorbable organics such as trihalomethanes (THMs), including chloroform.
  • Chlorinators can be used for noncommunity water supplies; however, this technology is not recommended by DEP for private homeowners since the chemicals used in this type of treatment can be dangerous.
  • Distilled water is essentially mineral-free, is very aggressive, in that it tends to dissolve substances with which it is in contact.
  • Ion exchange is a combined physical and chemical process in which ions that are dissolved in water are transferred to, and held by a solid material or exchange resin. The system used for water softening contains a cation exchange resin.
  • Reverse osmosis (RO) treatment decreases the dissolved impurities in water.
  • Mechanical filtration, often referred to as particulate or turbidity filtration, removes dirt, sediment, and loose scale from the incoming water.
  • In Ultraviolet technology the ultraviolet (or U.V.) radiation must pass through every particle of water with a minimum dose to be effective in water purification.


  • According to the Environment Agency(EA), rivers with the highest concentrations are mainly in central and eastern England, reflecting the geology and higher population.
  • The generic cost information will be sufficiently robust to enable a comparison between the costs of delivering phosphate removal by the water industry and those in other industry sectors.
  • Water abstraction in England and Wales is undertaken primarily for public water supply and for electricity generation.

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