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Information @ a Glance

General

  • An electrode is an electrical conductor used to make contact with a nonmetallic part of a circuit.

  • An electrode in an electrochemical cell is referred to as either an anode or a cathode.

  • Welding electrodes are metal wires with baked on chemical coatings. The rod is used to sustain the welding arc and to provide the filler metal required for the joint to be welded.

  • In arc welding an electrode is used to conduct current through a workpiece to fuse two pieces together. Depending upon the process, the electrode is either consumable, in the case of gas metal arc welding or shielded metal arc welding, or non-consumable, such as in gas tungsten arc welding.

  • For a direct current system the weld rod or stick may be a cathode for a filling type weld or an anode for other welding processes. For an alternating current arc welder the welding electrode would not be considered an anode or cathode.

  • The metal-arc welding electrodes may be grouped as bare electrodes, light coated electrodes, and shielded arc or heavy coated electrodes.

  • The type used depends on the specific properties required that include: corrosion resistance, ductility, high tensile strength, the type of base metal to be welded; and the position of the weld that is flat, horizontal, vertical, or overhead.

Process

  • Electrodes are made using a metallurgical process in which powder is compressed and sintered at high temperature to produce rods.

  • The oxide additives are generally dispersed finely in the tungsten powder prior to forming but some products composite electrodes are made up of a tungsten core with an oxide coating.

  • Spot welding electrodes are subjected to the most severe service of any current carrying member of the resistance welding process. These electrodes must transmit both the welding current and the welding force through the same area of contact, which is the weld area.

  • To improve electrode life during resistance welding of Zn-coated steels, TiCP/Ni coatings were deposited onto the surface of electrodes by electro-spark deposition. In addition, laser treatment was performed to eliminate cracks formed in the as-deposited TiCP/Ni coating.

  • Resistance spot welding (RSW) is the primary method for joining sheet steel in the automotive industries.

  • Electrodes used in welding forming dies should have chemical composition similar to the composition of the substrate, because significant composition differences between the electrode material and the die material are connected with a risk of extended cracking during quenching phase.

  • A development of welding technology for tool steels, especially in the case of expensive tools, such as pressure casting dies has a profound justification taking into account economical advantages and quick repair possibilities, which is a matter of principal importance in the case of a lot production of pressure castings.

Market

  • The European Welding Consumables market is currently in the stage of maturity. With the stick electrodes being continually replaced by the wires, the market growth has been declining.

  • The European welding consumables market is facing favourable demand conditions from the end user industries.

  • Commercial production of welding electrodes was started in India in early 1960s. At present there are 28 organised sector welding electrode units with installed capacity of 1054.61 million running meters in India.

  • Basic technology of welding electrode production was received from developed countries like Sweden, Germany, USA, and UK through foreign collaborations and joint ventures.

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