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General
  • Yoghurt or yogurt, less commonly yoghourt or yogourt (see spelling below), is a dairy product produced by bacterial fermentation of milk.
  • Fermentation of the milk sugar (lactose) produces lactic acid, which acts on milk protein to give yoghurt its texture and its characteristic tang.
  • Soy yogurt, a dairy yoghurt alternative, is made from soy milk.

Process

  • Yoghurt is made by introducing specific bacteria strains into milk, which is subsequently fermented under controlled temperatures and environmental conditions (inside a bioreactor), especially in industrial production.
  • The increased acidity causes milk proteins to tangle into a solid mass (curd) in a process called denaturation.
  • In the U.S., to be named yogurt (the American English dialect form of yoghurt), the product must be made with the bacterial species Streptococcus salivarius subsp,thermophilus and Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp.

Market

  • The consumption volume of yoghurt each year in Russia amounts to only 1.5 kilograms per person.
  • Yoghurt is a popular part of the European diet and the annual consumption of yoghurt in Europe averages at 17 kilograms per person per year.

Application

  • Yoghurt has nutritional benefits beyond those of milk: people who are moderately lactose-intolerant can enjoy yoghurt without ill effects, because the lactose in the milk precursor is converted to lactic acid by the bacterial culture.
  • Yoghurt also has medical uses, in particular for a variety of gastrointestinal conditions, and in preventing antibiotic-associated diarrhea.

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