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  • Yttrium is a chemical element that has the symbol Y and atomic number 39.
  • A silvery metallic transition metal, yttrium is common in rare-earth minerals and two of its compounds are used to make the red color phosphors in cathode ray tube displays, such as those used for televisions.
  • Yttrium is a silver-metallic, lustrous rare earth metal that is relatively stable in air. When yttrium is finely divided, it is very unstable in air.


  • The radioactive isotope Yttrium-90 is used for treatment of various cancers, including lymphoma, leukemia, ovarian, colorectal, pancreatic, and bone cancers.
  • Yttrium also can be used in laser systems and as a catalyst for ethylene polymerization reactions. It also has potential use in ceramic and glass formulas, as the oxide has a high melting point and imparts shock resistance and low expansion characteristics to glass.
  • Small quantities of yttrium are used as dopants for synthetic crystalline materials, eg, yttrium aluminium garnets (YAG) and yttrium aluminium perovskites for lasers and scintillators.


  • Equilibrium acidity of 0.7mol/L the obtained extraction efficiency for yttrium is about yttrium 28.0%, showing that almost all the yttrium in the feeding aqueous solution remains in the raffinate.
  • The extraction  were carried out by shaking 20 ml of the aqueous and organic phases in a separation funnel. An digital Ikalabortechnik mechanical shaker equipment, model HS501, was employed.
  • In this process, the YAG material and dopant are melted in an Iridium crucible that is heated by induction and the crystal is grown under computer control. Depending on crystal size, from four to eight weeks are required to complete the growth cycle.


  • Yttrium production and marketing within China continued to be competitive; however, prices remained steady. China was the source of most of the world’s supply of yttrium from its weathered clay ion-absorption ore deposits in the southern Provinces of Guangdong and Jiangxi.
  • The largest market of yttrium is composed of CRT, PDP, Lamp, LED, and other phosphors, and the high purity of the yttrium compounds is needed for the composite oxides of Y+Eu, Y+Tb, and Y+Zr.
  • World production of rare earths is around 100,000 t/y rare earth oxide (REO). Output of yttrium is significantly less, of the order of 2,500 t/y yttrium oxide (Y2O3). Global production data for scandium are not publicly available.
  • India is the second-largest source of yttrium, which is derived from its monazite production.

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