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  • Zirconium dioxide (ZrO2), sometimes known as zirconia, is a white crystalline oxide of zirconium.
  • Zirconia occurs naturally, with a monoclinic crystalline structure, is the rare mineral, baddeleyite.
  • The high temperature cubic crystalline form, called 'cubic zirconia', is rarely found in nature as mineral tazheranite, but is synthesized in various colours for use as a gemstone.
  • Zirconium dioxide can occur as a white powder which possesses both acidic and basic properties.


  • The isoeyntheeis process refers to the selective conversion of synthesis gas into branched aliphatic hydrocarbons over metal oxide catalysts.
  • Zirconium oxide can be prepared by the sol gel technique using inorganic precursors like ZroCl2 or metalorganic ones, as zirconium alkoxides.
  • Nanocrystalline zirconia dioxide was synthesized by sol-gel process from zirconium n-propoxide.


  • Zirconium dioxide (zirconia) is a high performance ceramic used so far in dentistry for fabricating endodontic posts, crown/bridge restorations and implant abutments.
  • Zirconia has been also applied for the fabrication of esthetic orthodontic brackets.
  • Single crystals of the cubic phase of zirconia are commonly used as a substitute for diamond in jewellery.
  • Stabilized zirconia is used in oxygen sensors and fuel cell membranes because it has the ability to allow oxygen ions to move freely through the crystal structure at high temperatures.


  • The clinical report describes a treatment for the replacement of the missing mandibular anterior tooth using a cantilever single lever resin bonded fixed partial denture, fabricated from zirconium dioxide ceramic.
  • Zirconia is also an important high-k dielectric material that is being investigated for potential applications as an insulator in transistors in future nanoelectronic devices.
  • The cubic phase of zirconia has a very low thermal conductivity, which has led to its use as a thermal barrier coating in jet turbine and diesel engines to allow operation at higher temperatures.

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